Summary of Philosophy and Science
Chapter One The movement of thought is connected with the natural movement of simple state
Human brain, the organ of thought is a highly developed system of dissipation structure. The so-called dissipation structure means a system is far from the state of balance, and exchanging material and energy continuously with outside, forming a stable orderly structure with a function of self-adjusting. The state of balance means ¡uwithout change¡v or ¡udeath¡v. It is obvious that human brain is in the state of misbalance. It exchanges material and energy with other parts of human body through the blood circulation and metabolisms, making the whole system of thinking structure stay in the relatively stable orderly structure, taking on the recognition function of thought.
The phenomenon of self-organization of simple state of dissipation structure ------ the pattern of Berne¡zs convection: heat a container with flat bottom, which is filled with liquid, evenly from the below. There will be no convection when the gradient of temperature is small and the heat is only delivered by way of conduction. When the gradient of temperature increases to a certain characteristic value the convection takes place suddenly and forms convection patterns with regularity. Looked from the above, there are many hexagons and the liquid at the center flows up and the liquid on the edge moves down. That is a dynamic structure with a regular order. There is a stable state before the convection. When temperature gradient reaches the characteristic value, the former stable state loses its stability and a new stable state appears in new conditions. The point losing stability is called critical point. Looked from the perspective of molecules, the stability before the critical point is disorder, compared with the stability after the critical point. At the critical point sudden change appears in the degree of order. Since the sudden change happens by itself it is called a phenomenon of self-organization,
The Berne¡zs Experiment proves that the nature has the ability to self-organize. Without a command a dissipation structure can self-organize and self-improve to evolve into a new system with higher order. Human thinking is also a dissipation structure. The highly self-organization of the movement of thought and the highly order of the process of thinking are all connected with the phenomenon of self-organization of dissipation structure on the lowest level. The only difference is that the degrees of self-organization and order of human thought are much higher than the level of the self-organization of Berne¡zs pattern! And the recognition function of human brain formed when the lowest dissipation structure evolved into highly improved self-organization function and the order function.
Chapter Two the space and time action of the thinking movement and the space and time action of natural movement of simple state
Kant, a great philosopher points out, the space and time recognized by thinking brain are not the space and time exist in the nature, but a feeling form in human brain. If we want to determine the relationship of above, below, left, right, before and behind among different matters, we should have the space conception of above, below, left, right, before and behind, or else we can¡zt distinguish such kind of relationship among matters; similarly if we want to determine the relationship of time such as synchronism or sequence we should have the conception of time as synchronism and sequence, or else we can¡zt differentiate such kind of relationship among things. So the space and time in our thought have an inevitable connection with the motion form of dissipation structure. As a result, the time and space recognized by thought correspond to the moving form of thought Now that the time and space understood by human beings are correspondent to the moving form of the dissipation structure of human brains, speaking in a broader sense, the time and space ¡urecognized¡v by flowers, birds, insects and fish should be correspondent with their respective moving form of dissipation structure. We can trace back to the most simple dissipation structure having the phenomenon of self-organization. Now let¡zs how their ¡uconception of time and space¡v would be.
The pattern of time and space in the simplest form of dissipative structure (Beloshophy ¡Vzhabaokensky¡z experiments about chemistry clock): mix Ce2(SO4)3KbrO3, CH3(COOH)2, H2SO4
And several drops of oxidation-reduction indictor beat up and put it into a tube. Then there will appear oscillation. The color of the solution will turn from red (CC3+) to blue (Ce4+) periodically and the solution will surge regularly just like the movement of the pendulum of a clock and this phenomenon is called chemical clock or chemical oscillation. The pattern appears only when the concentration of reactors reaches the characteristic value. If we continuously supply reactors the pattern can be maintained stable. This action of back-and-forth oscillation is just the time and space, which can be ¡uunderstood¡v by this dissipative structure. Then what kind of relationship does exist between the dissipative structure system of our highly organized thinking and the dissipative structure system of the lowest organized time and space action?
Now let¡zs consider our thinking brains as general dissipative structures which have both the phenomenon of self-organization and the phenomenon of chemical clock. In the self-organization process of thinking structures, there are many, many functional actions to be finished, and so many complicated functional actions are inevitably entangled with the action of chemical clock. While completing so many complicated functional actions, the dissipative structure also accomplishes the action of chemical clock very well. So the dissipative brains have to take actions of the back-and-forth movement as there a set of most basic required actions, and after a long time those actions become habits. In the long evolvement, the dissipative structure at last becomes a special structure, which can finish all kinds of back-and-forth movements fast and slow in a very short time. The function of this special structure is to complete all kinds of back-and-forth movements fast and slow in a very short time habitually, which is a time felling in thought. When we see two things happen at the same time the structure of dissipative thinking finishes two back-and-forth movements at the same speed in a very short time. So the habitual simple natural action corresponds to the concept of simultaneity in thought.
Why should thinking brains finish the action of chemical oscillation? We can suppose that there were no such back-and-froth movement as the chemical clock. The material movement would advance directly forward without return, thus where can we find relative stability? It is more impossible to create stable structure body. So implying the back-and-forth movement of chemical clock is essential to the dissipative system of stable structure.
The space action in thought cannot be separated from the thinking time.
Beiloshophe-Zhabaosky¡zs experiment is a dissipative structure with only a chemical clock. But the chemical oscillation in our thinking brains is uncountable, and the actions of the back-and-forth movement are always crisscross. In the long evolution of nature, the dissipative structure at last becomes a special structure, which can finish all kinds of back-and-forth movements in all directions and all ranges in a very short time. The function of this special structure is to complete all kinds of back-and-forth movements in all directions and all ranges in a very short time habitually, which is a space felling in thought. When we see two things move at opposite directions the structure of dissipative thinking finishes two back-and-forth movements at the same direction in a very short time. So the habitual simple natural action corresponds to the concept of same direction in thought while the concept of same length in the thinking dissipative structure corresponds to two habitual actions of back-and-forth movements in the same range in a very short time.
The ¡utime structure¡v of the thinking dissipative system actually reflects the quality requirement of material movement while the ¡uspace structure¡v reflects the quantitative requirement. The inseparable unification of time and space is the same of the unification of the quality and quantity of material movement. The material in abstract meaning is believed possessing the moving characteristic while time and space are the products of the material movement but not the conditions of material movement. It means time and space belong to (or include in) material movement. Just after the evolution of the nature developed the dissipative structure of back-and-forth movement like chemical oscillation, can the dissipative structure ¡uself-feel¡v its stable ¡ulife¡v exists. As there are stable movements like the back-and-forth movement, there is time. So time is only used to express the relatively stable movement modified by attributes. Time is only a piece of oasis in the desert of abstract material movement! If the material movement had no stability, could not be detected, there were no such things as time.
To an object not in a regular back-and-forth movement and moving without any regulation, time is as the same as nothing!
The most simple and most basic regular back-and-forth movement in the nature is the circle cycling movement. It is the predecessor of the stable movement and the source of the action of time and space! As the dissipative structure evolves and the level of the stable movement of the system rises, the felling of the action of time and space moves forward.
Chapter Three Four habitual actions in thinking (Concept)
------momentum¡Aforce, energy and valiant degree
Part one the level of movement forms
For the purpose of discussing the actions of some concepts as momentum, force, energy and valiant degree¡Awe should borrow a mathematical equation to define them:
We name SK as the quality of time and space. D represents the concrete prescript of the systemic moving forms of an object¡zs structure which are named the degree of movement; m means how much or how many a material system contains this kind of moving form, that is the quantity of an object¡zs structure. Note, all three signs are used to mean material structure system at the same level of moving form.
So the meaning of above equation is: the movement degree and quantity determine the action of time and space. In other words, a relatively stable moving form is corresponding to an action of time and space in a certain standard.
Let me represent the dimension of SK with meter i/ and second j, and the dimension of m with kilogram temporarily (I shall explain that later.). Now here come a few points:
1.Suppose the dimension of SK is m/s, and moving degree D means the conservation of momentum (mv) of the object system, and the moving form is the momentum form. This kind of object system is in the balanced inertial movement without beginning and end or without appearing and disappearing. We can relate it to the law of inertia.
So the concept of momentum in our brain is corresponding with the action of inertial movement in the thinking structure, that is, the action of habitual even direct movement. The momentum of an object is in fact the moving form in which an object is in the even direct movement.
2.Suppose the dimension of SK is m*m/s, the moving degree D is the conservation of the angular momentum, (mvr). This kind of moving form is a non-stable movement in which the system has no the regulation of time changes, but is only concerned with the position in space. We can relate it to the relationship of non-exactness of the measurement:
3. Suppose the dimension of SK is m/s2, the moving degree D is the conservation of the force of a system, (mv2/r) or (KMm/r2). The moving form is the moving form of force. We can relater it to the law of action and reaction.
This kind of stable movement is corresponding to the stable time and space of the action of gravitation. The system of an object takes on a stable structure of a circle or oval movement. The stable time and space are a circle and plane time and space. We can use a time coordinate and a radius coordinate to determine the movement laws in the system. We can relate them to our hometown-------- the solar system.
The concept of gravitation in our thinking is corresponding to the action of the habitual round cycling movement in the dissipative structure in thinking. An object moves in a circle not because it is ¡udrown by the action of a mysterious centripetal force¡v, but because there is a form of round cycling movement in nature and it leads to the creation of the concept movement of gravitation in the thinking structure. In above I have said it is the stable round back-and-forth movement that is the root of time and space.
4.Suppose the dimension of SK is m2/s2, obviously the moving degree D represents the conservation of mechanical energy and the moving form is the form of energy. The system is in a new balance.
The concept of mechanical energy in thought is corresponding to the moving form in which the thinking dissipative system moves a distance in the direction of even direct movement (inertial force ma), that is, the work-doing action of the habitual inertial force is the concept of energy in thought. When an object overcomes resistant force to do work, it loses a part of energy, which means this object makes its moving form of energy degenerate its moving form of inertial force through the process of exerting the inertial force on other objects. In the process the object itself loses its movement and the motion lost inevitably change into other objects according to that motion never disappears. Understood in a simple way, it means the object hands over its energy to other objects. However this understanding overlooks the degeneration which is why an object wants to do work¡C
The concept of inertial force in thinking is corresponding to the action of habitual even variable motion. Similarly it is not the object ¡uacted by a mysterious inertial force ¡v that makes the object stay in the even variable motion. But it is since there is the moving form of even variable motion in the nature that there comes the concept of inertial force in thinking structure. When the moving form evolves from the form of momentum to the form of force, the action of the concept of gravitation comes into being. The retreat from the form of energy to the moving form of force results in the action of the concept of inertial force.
5¡DSuppose the dimension of SK is m.m2/s2, then the moving degree D represents that the energy of the system only relates to positions not displaying the regularity of time. This moving form is an unstable evolved form. We can relate it to¡utunnel effect¡v¡Awhich is just the example of the stochastic phenomena in quantum mechanics. This form can further evolve into a new stable moving form.
6.Suppose the dimension of SK is m2/s2/s, the moving degree D indicates the form of energy taking on the regularity of time and space. This is a stable evolved form. We can relate it to the energy wave of electricity and magnetism. So the time and space corresponding to this kind of moving form is stable time and space in which electricity and magnetism functions. The motion laws can be described with a time dimension, an electricity dimension and a magnetism dimension. These new stable time and space are oscillation actions of time and space of two planes at right angles. We can relate this to the geometrical picture of the wave of electricity and magnet¡CWe should notice the action of time and space evolves from the circling round action in a plane of an act of gravitation to the oscillation action of two planes at right angles. The action of oscillation and the action of round cycling is a back-and-forth motion, but the action of oscillation is obviously on a higher level that the action of the round cycling.
In addition I noticed that the mechanical energy¡zs coming into being when the moving forms evolve from the form of force to the form of energy. Suppose the higher form of moving than the form of electricity and magnet retreats to the form of energy, then that is the concept habitual action energy in our mind such as the so-called chemical energy, nuclear energy and biological energy. This kind of moving form of the effects of electricity and magnet displays a stable structure. Considering the stable structure of electrons, although the orbit on which an electron moves around a nucleus is different from the classical stability of the orbit on which the earth goes around the sun, it just proving the complexity on higher level of the electro-magnet structure evolved from the form of gravitation.
Part two the overlapping feel of time and space in thinking.
The action of time and space in our thinking dissipative structure is, of course, better than those two kinds of time and space mentioned in above. But our eyes only have the function to observe above two kinds of time and space. So we can just observe above six moving forms in our scientific experiment. However the thinking system is able to recognize these more correct laws of moving form, which can be observed by means of the knowledge function of thinking structure on the higher level of moving forms. Think of Newton¡zs classical mechanics, Boltzmann¡zs classical statistics, Maxwell¡zs electromagnetism, Einstein¡zs relativity and Bohr-Heisenberg¡zs quantum mechanics. Now let¡zs see in the process of recognizing natural phenomena in above six forms, what the thinking dissipative system has done?
In part one I ever discussed momentum, force and energy are all moving forms of nature on different levels and accordingly there appeared some forms of the habitual concept action in thought. SK=D/m, since here SK, D, m all means a same moving form, the quality of the time and space of a same moving form, the degree of movement and the quantity of moving forms, which brings about the situation of ¡uWe don¡zt know what is the real feature of Lushan mountain because that we are in the mountain ourselves.¡v And when we define the unit of m as kilogram we in fact set the size and quantity of this simple moving form. No matter the matter of gravitation or the matter of inertia, they are all the matter of force; there is certainly a force, at least gravitation, if there is a system with matter. But we have no knowledge of those without ¡ustill matter¡v. Why the thinking system set the quantity of the moving form ------ force is for the purpose of comparative study, that is, to compare quantities of some other forms of motions such as momentum and energy with the quantity of the moving form ------ force. It means that we take how much an object structure contains the quantity of the moving form ------ force as the ¡ustandard ¡v to determine how much an object contains quantities of other moving forms. For example, momentum and energy are accounted with force and matter.
The comparative study of different moving forms makes the time and space of gravitation and those of electromagnetism overlap and pass through each other, forming a frame of time and space, which has been considered as objective existence. In addition all moving forms have been taken as objective existence in time and space. As a result the feel of time and space in thinking brains combines the action of time and space of moving forms on various levels with the action of time and space on the highest level of thinking system. Complex motion forms include the motion of simple forms; therefore the action of time and space of simple forms overlaps the complicated action of time and space developed in evolution.
Surprisingly wise professor Einstein originally noticed the relationship between time, space and material motion. His relativism in both narrow and broad senses discussed the relationship between time, space and momentum motion, and force motion. But since then the philosophical thought of system theory was not familiar to many people, he could not realize further relationship between time, space and motion forms. However he is still a great thinker using the knowledge function of thought and paving the road of studying thought for successors.
Now let¡zs understand the principle of the constancy of light speed. Kilogram matter means how much an object contains this kind of motion form. And all objective structures with this kind of matter have the effect of force. Then material chaos without kilogram matter should not have ¡uthe effect of force¡v, which in fact means there is no such thing as the motion form of force. This can be easily explained in this way: only when the momentum moving form evolves into the centripetal gravitation motion form in the form of stable round cycle, are there an corresponding action of thinking concept and the relatively stable structures. Those mixing motions have not evolved into structures, whose level of motion form is below the force form. Of course this kind of chaos has no kilogram force matter. So we can conclude: the chaos delivering gravitation and electromagnet force has no structure entity and kilogram force matter.
According to Galilean law of inertia, an object thrown from a moving car will be in inertial motion at the speed of the car. Please notice now we are examining an object¡zs momentum moving form. But when the light source is on a truck our studying light speed is examining the form of electromagnet motion on high level. The electromagnet form on high level, of course, does not conform to the law of inertia obeyed by momentum forms on low level. This is so-called the principle of the consistence of light speed. So to divide different motion form levels can bring us many convenience.
Now let¡zs look at Einstein¡zs ¡ugravitation matter equals to inertial matter¡v. Suppose we choose an object on the earth as 1 kilogram, and then compare it on a balance with other objects. When the earth moves, both objects are in the revolving motion of gravitation forms. Suppose the scale is in balance at this time, then move away the plates of the scales suddenly, these two objects will fall in the way of even accelerating rectilinear motion, so the two objects then in the motion state of inertial force. The process of the balancing of the scales uses two objects¡z gravitation form on one hand and inertial motion form on the other hand. Therefore in the situation of two objects on a scale there is not only the equality of gravitation matter but also the equality of inertial matter.
Part three free from the control of the law of conservation of energy
The so-called nuclear force in a nucleus is called a strong effect to each other, which is a force in the short distance. Until now the riddle of ¡unuclear force¡v still have no answer. The most excellent physicist Einstein created an ideal road to pursue a big unified field, trying to unify the three basic actions in noumenon time and space. This is certainly impossible. But we should remember his courage forever!
Our eyes have only functions to observe 6 motion forms and thinking system can realize the law of the 6 motion forms by means of its motion form on higher level. But the motion forms in the nature are much more than these kinds I know. As for the motion in electromagnet form, our defected eyes could not complete its observing functions and provide thinking brains with correct ¡uinformation¡v. So the brain structure has no way to realize these motion laws on higher levels. So the function of our eyes has limited the evolution of our thinking knowledge.
Let¡zs continue our discussion on the quality of time and space, SK=D/m
Here m is no longer kilogram matter but means how much an object structure contains the motion degree D.
7.Suppose the dimension of SK is m3/s3. Let me call this motion form courage degree. So the motion degree D represents the conservation of the courage degree. This is a more perfect balance state than the conservation of energy.
Material motion in abstract philosophical meaning is divided by me into four stages in Chinese meaning. First the motion, then it is overcome by force, and the force is overcome by energy, and finally the energy is overcome by courage. Or we can say motion state creates force state, force state creates energy state and energy state creates the courage state.
8.Suppose the dimension of SK is m¡Em3/s3. This is unstable structure system in the situation of courage state. This motion has much deeper non-decisive characteristic¡]possibility¡^.
9.Suppose the dimension of SK is m3/m4, the motion form is the strong effect among nucleuses. Corresponding to this motion form is the stable time and space of strong effects. This kind of time and space has three oscillation planes in right angles. We can describe the systematic physical laws with a time dimension and three dimensions of strong effects. Perhaps this kind of habitual action of time and space is near the feel of time and space in thinking brains.
Nuclear force is composed of effects on three planes. But electromagnet force is only made of two effects, so nuclear force is much stronger than electromagnet force. More exactly speaking, courage degree should be much better than electromagnet form. Of course, the system of the motion of courage degree is no longer limited by the conservation of energy. Only thinking in this way is the nuclear force mysterious no more. Image, if the thinking motion can only observe the conservation of energy as a general object, how can it realize and control these simple natural motions?
Now let¡zs explain the equation of matter and energy: E=mc2. When matter is in the wane, it means the force motion form of matter structure degenerates into chaos without matter. Since the former matter structure has the motion form of electronic energy. So the process of degeneration often appears as the degeneration of electronic energy structure. Though a certain motion form can degenerate, the mixing motion to form substance would not disappear. So it appears as intensive mixing explosion in phenomena just like the energy release in general situation. So we can only correlate electromagnet energy and nuclear energy to the matter disappearance and the relating factor C2 represents the characteristic of chaos. So the meaning of the equation of matter and energy is not that matter changes into energy but the force motion form and the energy motion form of material structure degenerates into the process of momentum form. The motion of material chaos will never disappear! According to this, it is easy to make a narrow cycle in the small circle of matter and energy. Only by setting them in a bigger system can we understand much more.
If the nature did not give matter the chance of disappear and permit motion forms to develop from low level to higher level, isn¡zt it the increase of evolution and the degree of order? Now let¡zs consider the second law of thermodynamics:
The temperature T represents the average even momentum of a molecule and can be understood as the energy of a state of molecule system. So when there is an energy increase dQ in a thermodynamics system, the number of energy states of this system increases dQ/T. The principle of entropy production means when a system absorbs energy from outside, the state number of system becomes more and the degree of disorder becomes larger, the system going to disorder. The resulting ¡utheory of heat death¡v is the worst problem to philosophers and physicists.
Now when we go out of the castle of the conservation of energy we will suddenly see the light. When dissipative structure exchanges matter and energy with outer world, it in fact exchanges motion with outside. Although this can increase the number of energy states of the system, the system can evolve or self-organize into the motion form on the much higher level than energy form. Newly created motion form on a higher level is more in order than energy motion structure other than increases the degree of disorder. This a fact proved by the evolution of animal and plant kingdom. Therefore the second law of thermodynamics is to study the motion change of the system on the level of energy motion form.
I think the ¡uminus entropy¡v said by Professor I. Prigogine is imaginary and a mathematic reparation to the second law of thermodynamics. And the idea of the evolving system in the theory of dissipative structure will be enhanced and glorified!
Chapter Four Chaos------from the beginning of the world
Where and when did all things in the universe come from?
Where and when did all things related to human thinking time and space come from?
From the start everything is in the chaos!
Since there need many drawings if we want to image the evolution of the original chaos, which does not fit the habit of natural philosophy, we simply explain it by means of hieroglyph. At first let me give some stipulations:
A: Chaos is endless.
B: Chaos is the same in all the directions.
C: Chaos has no the motion form of stable structure such as force and energy.
The following is an account of some basic questions:
Field: chaos ether motion form is the chaos motion out of stable structures.
Gravitation particle: ether directly rushes towards a rotating cycle. If we use an equipment to receive gravitation particle (or gravitation wave), there will be force effect but no energy effect. The relativity in the wide sense predicts the gravitation wave carrying energy does not exist because gravitation has only a plane cycling motion while the energy wave of electromagnetism has two planes at right angles alternatively oscillating. There is a quality difference between gravitation wave and the energy wave of electromagnetism. (Gravitation does not do work and had not energy.)
Electron: gravitation particle¡zs moving circle rotates again just like the equator¡zs moving towards the South Pole and the North Pole. This model can be used to explain the repelling force of static electricity. Electronic structure has two rotating planes in right angle.
Proton: it rotates once more on the base of electrons, which is a moving structure rotating around three revolving planes at right angle at a high speed. This model can be used to explain the gravitation force among protons and electrons. The time and space of protons and electrons do not synchronize, which leads to quantum¡zs stochastic distribution. Without positive electrons corresponding to negative electrons, we believe why protons have positive electricity is because the motion forms of electronic energy are symmetric with the motion forms of energy included in (or eclipsed with) the forms of the courage degree of protons.
Photon: when two oscillatory planes at right angle exchange regularly what around the ether is photon or the quantum of light. So photon has not entity structure.
These questions mentioned above need further study and account.